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IKPIR: PRESENTATION: consulting Ljubljana,  



Ever since it was first established, the staff of IKPIR have endeavoured to achieve the transfer of research results into practice, into civil engineering design and consultancy work, and into the development of updated technical regulations for the fields of building and civil engineering (IKPIR is particularly active in the implementation of the new European standards for structures - Eurocodes - in Slovenia). Members of IKPIR's staff have also carried out several hundred complex studies, development projects, and consulting jobs. Listed below are some typical examples of this work. Computer software for the design of building structures (1971-96) This computer software, developed at IKPIR, is used by the majority of designers of building structures in Slovenia, and has been applied to the majority of Slovenia's more important buildings, built over this period. Structural analysis of GORICA prefabricated structures (1971-80) More than one hundred structural analyses were performed for structures built in all parts of the former Yugoslavia. A computer program developed at the Institute was used. The results of the program consisted of the internal forces, the stresses in the concrete and in the subsoil beneath the foundations, and the necessary reinforcement. Residential tower-blocks, 12 to 22 storeys high, in the Knježevac Housing Estate in Belgrade (1976) Designs were made of the load-bearing structure of these tower-blocks, using all available computer programs for the analysis of structures. Structural analysis of the load-bearing structure of the arched bridge at Solkan, and of the supporting shuttering (1981-83) Static and dynamic analyses were performed for the arched road bridge at Solkan.Computer programs developed at IKPIR were used for this design project, too. Review of the design for the building structure of the National and University Library at Zagreb (1983 and 1987-90) Designers at "Tehnika" and "Građevinski inštitut" of Zagreb had the task of designing the complex structure of the new library building in Zagreb. The experts of IKPIR performed reviews of the design as it progressed, and members of some of the Faculty's other chairs also participated in the case of certain parts of the structure. As the result of excellent cooperation between the designers and IKPIR's experts, who carried out numerous additional analyses, a number of mistakes were eliminated from the design, and several proposals for significant improvements to the structure were made. Development of the SCT large-panel system (1986-87) SCT, ZRMK (the Institute for Testing and Research in Materials and Structures), and IKPIR all participated in an extensive research and development project. The result of this work was the development of a large-panel system which can be used for the construction of buildings in regions of high seismicity. Blocks containing more than 1000 flats have been built using this system in Ljubljana. Seismic analysis of the Reber Viaduct (1990) In 1990, when adequate Slovenian technical regulations for the design of bridges in seismic regions were not yet available, a seismic design was carried out for two parallel reinforced-concrete viaducts, 600 m long, to be built on the motorway section between Malence and Šmarje Sap. In the design, the findings of the latest Slovenian and foreign research work were taken into account. Probabilistic analysis of the seismic hazard at the location of the Krško Nuclear Power Plant (1991-94) This was, from the technical and the organizational point of view, an exceptionally demanding project, which involved the reassessment, using the most up-to-date methods, of the seismic design parameters for the location of the Krško Nuclear Power Plant. This study, which was ordered by the Krško Nuclear Power Plant, was headed by IKPIR, taking into account very stringent quality assurance requirements, and lasted for four years. Also taking part in the project were seismologists and geologists from Slovenia and Croatia, as well as numerous foreign experts. Implementation of the Eurocode 8/2 Standard (1994-95) Taking into account the critical state, in Slovenia, of the technical regulations and standards dealing with the aseismic design of bridges, as well as the rapid building of such structures within Slovenia's new motorway construction program, it was necessary to establish, within the shortest possible time, the European pre-standard Eurocode 8/2, which deals with the design of bridges in seismic regions, for use in Slovenia. Within the framework of a research project, financed by DARS, the Company for Motorways in Slovenia, over the period 1994-95 a national application document, a translation of the pre-standard into Slovenian, and five test examples were prepared. The pre-standard and two of the test examples have been prepared in the form of hypertext . A handbook has been prepared, and two seminars for designers have been organized. Numerical structural safety evaluation of the cooling-tower of block 5 (tower No. 4 of height 80 m ) of the Šoštanj Thermo-Electric Power Plant (1995) The structural safety of the cooling-tower was analysed in order to determine the critical zones for repair of the structure on the basis of the actual geometry and condition of the structure. The structure was analysed as a spatial beam system, loaded by its own weight, wind and thermal loadings. The results of the analysis produced the basis for the design of adequate and urgently needed repair works to the cooling-tower. Numerical non-linear analysis of the 150 m high chimney of block 4 of the Šoštanj Thermo-Electric Power Plant (1996) The purpose of this project was to determine the reasons for the occurrence of cracks and the selection of an appropriate method of repair for the chimney. A transient, non-linear, thermo-mechanical analysis was performed using the software package BTHEV44, which was developed at IKPIR. This program package is based on the simultaneous solving of two systems of equations (the heat transfer equations, and the incremental equations of the mechanical equilibrium of deformable bodies) within selected time intervals. In the case of transient analysis, the thermal load was described by taking into account the changing temperature of the chimney, which simulated the operational gas temperature changes. On the external surface of the chimney, different temperatures were simulated corresponding winter and summer temperatures, partial insolation and partial shading. The mechanical loadings consisted of the chimney's own weight and wind.

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